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Scientific Advisory Board

The Scientific Advisory Board consists of our world's leading scientist and psychiatrists. Their role is to review scientific research proposals and advise the Executive Board on which to award research dollars. There are many unanswered questions about bipolar disorder-what causes it? What are the genetics of it? How should we treat it? At this point, there is still so much yet to be discovered. International Bipolar Foundation is determined to be part of the answer-by providing funding for research.

Husseuni K. Manji, M.D.

Co-Chair

Husseuni Manji

Husseini K. Manji, M.D., is global therapeutic area head, neuroscience research and development, a position he assumed in March 2009. He joined Johnson & Johnson in October 2008 to lead research and development in the central nervous system therapeutic area.

 Manji was previously chief, Laboratory of Molecular Pathophysiology & Experimental Therapeutics, NIMH, and director of the NIH Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, the largest program of its kind in the world. He is also a visiting professor in the Department of Psychiatry at Duke University. Manji received his B.S. (Biochemistry) and M.D. from the University of British Columbia. Following residency training, he completed fellowship training at the NIMH and obtained extensive additional training in cellular and molecular biology at the NIDDK, National Institute of Diabetes, Digestibe and Kidney Diseases. The major focus of his research has been the investigation of disease- and treatment-induced changes in gene and protein networks that regulate synaptic and neural plasticity in neuropsychiatric disorders. His work has helped to conceptualize these illnesses as genetically-influenced disorders of synaptic and neural plasticity, and has led to the investigation of novel therapeutics for refractory patients. He has also been actively involved in the development of biomarkers to help refine these multifactoral diseases into mechanism-based subcategories to develop targeted therapeutics.

Manji has received numerous research awards, including the NIMH Director's Career Award for Significant Scientific Achievement, the A. E. Bennett Award for Neuropsychiatric Research, the Ziskind-Somerfeld Award for Neuropsychiatric Research, the NARSAD Mood Disorders Prize, the Mogens Schou Distinguished Research Award, the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology (ACNP)’s Joel Elkes award for distinguished research.

John C. Reed, M.D., Ph.D.

Co-Chair

John ReedJohn C. Reed, MD, Ph.D., is the Global Head of Roche Pharmaceutical Research & Early Development and a member of the enlarged Corporate Executive Committee of the Roche Group.  Prior to joining Roche, Dr. Reed served as President & Chief Executive Officer of Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute. Dr. Reed also held Professor and adjunct Professor appointments at several universities. Dr. Reed’s scientific accomplishments include authorship of over 800 research publications and more than 50 book chapters. He was recognized as the world’s most highly cited scientist for his research publications during the decade 1995-2005 in the broad field of “cell biology” and also in the field of “general biomedicine” by the Institute for Scientific Information. Dr. Reed is the recipient of numerous awards and honors, and Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He is a named inventor for nearly 100 patents and the founder or co-founder of several biotechnology companies. Dr. Reed has also served on the Boards of Directors of several public and private biotechnology companies and life-sciences organizations.

Martin Alda, M.D., FRCPC

Martin AldaDr. Martin Alda, Professor of Psychiatry, expert in mood disorders and in psychiatric genetics, is exploring the genetic and biological basis of mood disorders and the nature of response to long-term treatment. Dr. Alda graduated from Charles University in Prague, Czechoslovakia. Prior to joining Dalhousie Medical School in 1998, Dr. Alda taught and practiced psychiatry in Czechoslovakia, at the University of Ottawa, and at McGill University. Currently he holds additional appointments at McGill University, The University of Pittsburgh, and at Charles University in Prague. Clinically Dr. Alda works in the Mood Disorders Program at the QEII Health Sciences Centre in Halifax.

The focus of Dr. Alda's group is on major psychiatric disorders and their genetics. Bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and depression are all highly heritable, affect young people, lead to high morbidity and mortality, and can be more or less successfully treated. Three lines of enquiry – mapping genes for these conditions, linking the genetic predisposition with response to treatment, and examining how the genetic risk translates into behavioural and clinical features of the illness are at the core of the research program. To this end they use clinical, molecular-genetic, biochemical, brain-imaging, and neuropsychological methods in studies of patients and their family members.

Dr. Alda's research has been funded by the CIHR since 1997 and also supported by the Nova Scotia Health Research Foundation, Genome Quebec, Stanley Foundation, National Alliance for Research in Schizophrenia and Affective Disorders (NARSAD), the Ontario Mental Health Foundation, and Canadian Psychiatric Research Foundation.

Dr. Alda has published over 160 original papers and book chapters, and serves on editorial boards of several journals (Bipolar Disorders, Open Neuroscience Journal, Open Psychiatry Journal, Pharmacopsychiatry, and Psychiatrie). He is a member of various scientific organizations, including the European College of Neuropsycho-pharmacology, American Society for Human Genetics, International Society for Psychiatric Genetics, Canadian College of Neuropsycho-pharmacology, and the International Group for the Study of Lithium Treated Patients (IGSLi) and the ConLiGen consortium. Dr. Alda held the NCDEU Young Investigator Award from the US-based National Institute of Mental Health, the Intermediate Research Fellowship from the Ontario Mental Health Foundation, and twice the Independent Investigator Award from NARSAD. Prior to his return to Halifax, he was the Canada Research Chair Tier I at McGill University.

Michael Bauer, M.D., Ph.D.

Michael BauerProfessor Michael Bauer, MD, PhD, is Director and Executive Chair at the Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy at the Medical Faculty of the Technische Universität Dresden, and physician-in-chief of the psychiatric hospital and outpatient clinics at the University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus in Dresden, Germany.

Dr. Bauer received his MD from the Freie Universität Berlin, Germany, and his PhD from the Institute of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry also at Freie Universität Berlin. From 1990-1996 he completed a residency in psychiatry and neurology at Benjamin Franklin University Medical Center in Berlin, Germany. From 1998 to 2002 he was a Visiting Professor of Psychiatry at the Neuropsychiatric Institute of the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA). From 2002-2006 he was Deputy Head in the Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy at Charite-University of Medicine Berlin, in Berlin, Germany, and also Director of the Mood Disorders Research and Clinical Program at the Charité.

Dr. Bauer’s research interests include the neurobiology and treatment of mood disorders with an emphasis on bipolar disorder, and refractory depression and investigation of the thyroid system in mood disorders using neuroendocrine and functional brain imaging techniques.

He currently is the President of the International Group for the Study of Lithium-treated Patients, Chair of the German Society of Bipolar Disorder, Chair of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry Task Force on Treatment Guidelines for Unipolar Depressive Disorders, and editor of the journals “Pharmacopsychiatry” and “Der Nervenarzt”. He has published more than 160 articles in peer-reviewed journals, 10 edited books and 54 book chapters and has been the recipient of several honors and awards, including the National Alliance for Research on Schizophrenia and Depression Young Investigator Award, the National Alliance for Research on Schizophrenia and Depression Independent Investigator Award 2005, the Judson Braun Research Scholarship at the University of California, Los Angeles, and the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft Research Scholarship.

RH Belmaker, M.D.

RH BelmakerDr. Belmaker received his BA from Harvard College in 1967 and his MD from Duke Medical School in 1971. From 1972-74 he was a Clinical Associate at the National Institute of Mental Health in Bethesda, MD. Since 1974 he has held positions in academic psychiatry in Israel, first at the Jerusalem Mental Health Center 1974-1984 and then at Ben Gurion University of the Negev 1985 to the present.

Dr. Belmaker was a pioneer in biological psychiatry in Israel, and chaired the International College of Neuropsychopharmacology (CINP) meeting in Jerusalem in 1982. His research interests include affective disorders, especially mania, ECT, and second messenger mechanisms. In 1993 he submitted a grant request to National Alliance for Research on Schizophrenia and Depression proposing that TMS could be therapeutically useful in psychiatry, and was awarded the prestigious Distinguished Investigator Award to pursue this hypothesis. He has received the Anna Monika Prize for Research in Depression (1983), the Ziskind-Somerfeld Prize for Senior Research in Psychiatry (1993) and the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology Lilly Research Award (1996), and the National Alliance for Research on Schizophrenia and Depression Lifetime Achievement Falcone Award for research in affective disorder (2000) and the Research Prize of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (2004).

He is President of the CINP (International College of Neuropsychopharmacology). Husband of over 40 years, father of six children and grandfather of four and counting, Dr. Belmaker is an avid amateur archaeologist in Israel and scuba diver.

Michael Berk

Michael BerkProfessor Michael Berk is currently appointed as Chair of Psychiatry in the School of Medicine, Deakin University. He also is a Professorial Fellow at the University of Melbourne and the Mental Health Research Institute, and leads the first episode bipolar program at Orygen Youth Health Research Centre. He is immediate past President of the International Society of Bipolar Disorders, and Chairman of the Australasian Society of Bipolar Disorders. He has published over 350 papers on a range of topics with his research interests focusing on mood and psychotic disorders, particularly bipolar disorder and depression. His greatest contribution to the field is in the discovery and implementation of novel therapies. He has published over 20 self-initiated, non-industry randomised controlled trials, predominantly in bipolar disorder. He is a past committee member of both the Collegium Internationale Psychopharmacologicum and World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry and is a member of a number of international advisory boards. He was the founding editor of The Journal of Depression and Anxiety, is associate editor of both the Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry and Early Intervention in Psychiatry, has served as guest editor or is on the editorial board of 12 other journals as well as being a reviewer of 30 journals.

Prof Berk is the recipient of a number of grants, including a NHMRC CCRE and 3 NHMRC project grants, two beyondblue grants and two Stanley Medical Research Institute awards and is a lead investigator on the CRE for Mental Health. He is regularly invited as a speaker at international meetings. In 2008, he was awarded the Australasian Society of Psychiatric Research Eli Lilly Oration, the Pathcare Smart Geelong Research and Learning Expo Health and Lifestyle award and the G Force Recruitment Researcher of the Year award for his work, and in 2009 received a commendation in the Ministers Award for Mental Health. Since relocating to Australia in 2001, he has established a new research unit at Barwon Health, which now has 15 researchers and 6 students engaged in 33 projects, multiple local, national and international collaborations, as well as heading a clinical Professorial Unit at the Geelong Clinic.

Hilary P. Blumberg, M.D.

Hilary BlumbergThe focus of Dr. Blumberg’s research is the utilization of brain scanning techniques to understand the neural systems that underlie emotional processing, and to investigate abnormalities in these neural systems in mood disorders. I have a particular interest in the cortico-limbic structures that include the amygdala, hippocampus and orbitofrontal cortex. I am especially interested in how genetic, developmental and environmental factors interact to influence the expression of abnormalities in these structures over the lifespan. I use a variety of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods to study the brain including structural MRI to look at regional brain volumes, functional MRI to look at regional brain activity, and diffusion tensor MRI to look at the integrity of connections between structures.

Charles L. Bowden, M.D.

Bowden

Charles L. Bowden, MD is Nancy U. Karren Clinical Professor in the Department of Psychiatry and Professor in the Department of Pharmacology at The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio.  Dr. Bowden attended The University of Texas at Austin and earned his medical degree from Baylor College of Medicine in Houston.  He completed his training in psychiatry at the New York State Psychiatric Institute and Columbia-Presbyterian Hospital in New York.

Dr. Bowden was awarded the 2001 Gerald L. Klerman Senior Investigator Award by the Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance, received the 2006 Mind of America Scientific Research Award from the National Alliance for the Mentally Ill and  the 2008 NARSAD Falcone prize for outstanding achievement in affective disorders research.    Dr. Bowden is a Fellow of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology and Associate Editor for Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. He has authored more than 400 peer reviewed publications. His research is principally on the symptomatic and biological characterization of bipolar disorders and the effectiveness and pharmacodynamics of mood stabilizing drugs. He has been principal investigator for over 90 studies funded by pharmaceutical companies, NIMH, and various foundations. Dr. Bowden is named in Best Doctors in the US in the area of mood disorders.  He is recognized in Thomson Reuter’s “The World’s Most Influential Scientific Minds, 2014”.  Honorees were the scientists who ranked in the top 1 percent by citations of their published work in 21 broad fields between 2002 and 2012.  Dr.  Bowden is one of 100 scientists worldwide recognized in the Psychiatry/psychology category.

Joe Calabrese, M.D.

Joe CalabreseJoseph Calabrese holds the Bipolar Disorders Research Chair and is Professor of Psychiatry at Case Western Reserve University. He is the Director of the Mood Disorders Program at the University Hospitals Case Medical Center in Cleveland, Ohio.

Dr. Calabrese also co-directs an NIMH-funded ‘Bipolar Disorders Research Centre, whose projects include research conducted by Bob Findling (Director of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry) on the phenomenology and treatment of juvenile bipolar, and research conducted by Martha Sajatovic (Director of Geriatric Psychiatry), whose projects include late life bipolar disorder, health services research, and qualitative methodology.The research center is dedicated to the improvement of clinical outcomes in under-served populations of bipolar disorder, including those with bipolar depression, rapid cycling, children and adolescents, adults currently abusing alcohol and/or drugs, forensic complications of bipolar disorder, those receiving care within community mental health centres, older adults, and members of the Ohio National Guard.

Dr Calabrese has received numerous research grants from the NIMH and Federal agencies and published over 300 peer-reviewed papers. His primary scientific focus is the short- and long-term treatment of bipolar disorder, with special emphasis on bipolar depression and the rapid cycling pattern of presentation. Dr. Calabrese was chosen by psychiatry residents to receive the ‘Best Teacher of the Year Award’ in three different years, received the NARSAD Lifetime Achievement Award for his research in bipolar disorder in 2005, Ellis Island Medal of Honor in 2006, and the Gerald L. Klerman Lifetime Achievement Award in 2008.

Kiki Chang, M.D.

Kiki ChangKiki Chang, MD, is Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at the Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Child Psychiatry. He is Director of the Pediatric Bipolar Disorders Clinic and Research Program, where he specializes in pediatric psychopharmacology and treatment of depression and bipolar disorder in children and adolescents. His research includes brain imaging, genetics, psychotherapy, and medication trials.

Dr. Chang graduated cum laude from Princeton University in 1988 and received his M.D. from the Tufts University School of Medicine in 1993. He completed his general psychiatry residency at the University of Cincinnati and his child psychiatry fellowship at Stanford University. After a postdoctoral research fellowship, Dr. Chang joined the Stanford faculty in 1999.

Dr. Chang is the recipient of the 2003 American Psychiatric Association/ AstraZeneca Young Minds in Psychiatry Award. He has been the recipient of two NARSAD Young Investigator Awards and has received a 5-year Career Development Award from the National Institutes of Health as well as an 5-year RO1 grant from the NIMH. Dr. Chang is the author of numerous papers and book chapters regarding bipolar disorder and has presented widely at national and international scientific conferences and meetings.

Karl Deisseroth, M.D., Ph.D. 

Karl DeisserothDr. Deisseroth focuses on developing molecular and cellular tools to observe, perturb, and re-engineer brain circuits. His laboratory is based in the James H. Clark Center at Stanford and employs a range of techniques including neural stem cell and tissue engineering methods, electrophysiology, molecular biology, neural activity imaging, animal behavior, and computational neural network modeling. Also a clinician in the psychiatry department, Professor Deisseroth employs novel electromagnetic brain stimulation techniques in human patients for therapeutic purposes.

Rob Friedman, M.D.

Rob FriedmanRob Friedman, M.D. is Board Certified in Child and Adolescent, as well as Adult Psychiatry. After graduating Magna Cum Laude with Distinction in Psychology from Duke University, Dr. Friedman received his medical degree from The New York State Program at the Sackler School of Medicine in Tel Aviv, Israel, in 1985. He completed his Residency in General Psychiatry at Long Island Jewish/Hillside Medical Center in Great Neck, New York, followed by the completion of a fellowship in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry at the UCSD Medical Center in 1990. Since then, Dr. Friedman has been in private practice in San Diego. He is a founding partner, President and CEO of PsyCare, Inc., a behavioral healthcare provider group with seven offices throughout San Diego. Dr Friedman is an Assistant Clinical Professor of Psychiatry at the UCSD Department of Psychiatry, San Diego, providing clinical supervision to training child and adolescent psychiatrists. Dr. Friedman is a member of the American Psychiatric Association and the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatrists.

Kay Redfield Jamison, Ph.D.

Kay R JamisonDr. Jamison did her undergraduate and graduate studies at the University of California, Los Angeles where she was a National Science Foundation Research Fellow, University of California Cook Scholar, John F. Kennedy Scholar, United States Public Health Service Pre-doctoral Research Fellow, and UCLA Graduate Woman of the Year. She also studied zoology and neurophysiology at the University of St. Andrews in Scotland.
 
Dr. Jamison, formerly the director of the UCLA Affective Disorders Clinic, was selected at UCLA Woman of Science and has been cited as one of the “Best Doctors in the United States.” She is recipient of the American Suicide Foundation Research Award, the UCLA Distinguished Alumnus Award, the UCLA Award for Creative Excellence, the Siena Medal, the Endowment Award from the Massachusetts General Hospital/Harvard Medical School, the Fawcett Humanitarian Award from the National Depressive and Manic-Depressive Association, the Steven V. Logan Award for Research into Brain Disorders from the National Alliance for the Mentally Ill, the William Styron Award from the National Alliance for Research on Schizophrenia and Depression, and the Yale University McGovern Award for excellence in medical communication. She was selected as one of five individuals for the public television series “Great Minds of Medicine,” and chosen by Time magazine as a “Hero of Medicine.” She will be the Litchfield Lecturer at the University of Oxford in 2002.
 
Dr. Jamison was a member of the first National Advisory Council for Human Genome Research. She is Senior Scientific Consultant to the Dana Foundation and Chair of the Genome Action Coalition, an alliance of more than 140 patient groups, pharmaceutical corporations, and biotechnology companies. She also serves on the National Committee for Basic Sciences at UCLA, and is the executive producer and writer for a series of award-winning public television specials about manic-depressive illness and the arts.

Tadafumi Kato, M.D., Ph.D.

Tadafumi KatoDr. Tadafumi Kato graduated University of Tokyo, Fucluty of Medicine, in 1988, and got M.D. degree. After residency training, he moved to Shiga University of Medical Science in 1989 and started the research of magnetic resonance spectroscopic investigation of bipolar disorder. In 1995 he got Ph.D. degree. During 1995-1996, he studied in Department of Psychiatry, University of Iowa. In 1997, he moved to Department of Neuropsychiatry, University of Tokyo. In 2001, he moved to RIKEN Brain Science Insitute, as the head of Laboratory for Molecular Dynamics of Mental Disorders. SInce 2008, he has also played a role as a director of Disease Mechanism Core. His major research interest is neurobiology of bipolar disorder. He published 161 peer reviewed papers in international journals.

John Kelsoe, M.D.

John KelsoeDr. Kelsoe graduated from medical school at the University of Alabama, Birmingham in 1981. He completed internship training at Washington University in St. Louis and psychiatry residency at UCSD. He then went to the National Institute of Mental Health in Bethesda, Maryland for 4 years and returned to San Diego to join the Department of Psychiatry faculty in 1989.

Dr. Kelsoe’s longstanding research focus has been the genetics of psychiatric illness, bipolar disorder in particular. Over the past 20 years, his work has been focused on using a variety of molecular genetic methods to identify the specific genes that predispose to bipolar disorder. He has pursued this primarily by using positional cloning methods such as linkage and association in families in which the illness is genetically transmitted. He has also employed animal models of bipolar disorder in order to identify possible candidate genes that can then be tested in clinical populations. This approach has led to the recent identification of the gene for G protein receptor kinase 3 (GRK3) as a likely gene for bipolar disorder on chromosome 22. Dr. Kelsoe is currently actively engaged in genome wide association studies of bipolar disorder. He directs the Bipolar Genome Study (BiGS) which is a 13-site consortium focused on identifying genes for bipolar disorder and their relationship to clinical symptoms. He also co-directs the Psychiatric GWAS Consortium for Bipolar Disorder (PGC-BD) which is an international collaborative effort designed to identify genes for bipolar disorder in a sample of over 10,000 patients. These large exciting new technological approaches promise great advances in understanding the causes of bipolar disorder.

Dr. Kelsoe’s primary clinical focus is the treatment of refractory mood disorders. He is the Medical Director of the STEP Clinic at the VA Hospital where they specialize in the treatment of chronic and refractory mood disorders. Patients at this clinic receive a thorough diagnostic evaluation and are eligible to participate in longitudinal research studies of the ability of genes to predict course, outcome, and treatment response.

Terence A. Ketter, M.D.

Terence KetterDr. Terence Ketter obtained his medical degree from the University of Toronto and had internship and residency training in psychiatry at the University of California at San Francisco. He had subsequent fellowship training in brain imaging and psychopharmacology research methods at the Biological Psychiatry Branch of the National Institute of Mental Health in Bethesda, Maryland. He is currently Professor of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences and Chief of the Bipolar Disorders Clinic at the Stanford University School of Medicine in Stanford, California. Dr. Ketter's research interests include the use of brain imaging methods such as positron emission tomography (PET), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to better understand the neurobiology of mood disorders and to explore the possibility of using these techniques to more effectively target treatments for patients with bipolar disorders. Dr. Ketter also conducts research in the use of novel medications and combinations of medications in the treatment of bipolar disorders, with an emphasis on the use of anticonvulsants.

In constant demand as a speaker, he presents at numerous national and international conferences and advisory boards, and sits on the review panel of several major scientific journals. Within the University, he serves on the Institutional Review Board, the body responsible for reviewing all new research proposals for scientific soundness, ethical conduct, and protection of human subjects.

Inspired by his clinical work with exceptionally creative individuals, Dr. Ketter has developed a strong interest in the relationship of creativity and mood disorders. In addition to his regular medical school and residency teaching duties, he is currently teaching a Sophomore Seminar course on Mood, Temperament, and Creativity. He is a featured panelist on the Alumni Association's Think Again tour.

Marion Leboyer, M.D., Ph.D.

Marion LeboyerMarion Leboyer, M.D., Ph.D. joined the faculty of the University of Paris in 1998 as Professor of Psychiatry. She is head of the university affiliated department of Psychiatry (Hospital Chenevier-Mondor, AP-HP) and runs a Psychiatry Genetics laboratory (INSERM). Dr. Leboyer’s research efforts have contributed to a better identification of relevant phenotype for genetic studies, particularly in the field of bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, suicide, autism, OCD and pharmaco-genetic studies. Being principal investigator of national and international studies, she has been able to produce prominent findings such as identification in autism of the first mutations in neuroligins (NLGN-3 and NLGN-4). She is director of .a foundation (FondaMental) recently created by the French Ministry of Research aiming at creating a network of expert centers and promoting research in Psychiatry. Dr. Leboyer has authored or co-authored more than 200 scientific articles and book chapters, as well as 5 books.

Ellen Leibenluft, M.D.

Ellen LeibenluftEllen Leibenluft, M.D. is Senior Investigator and Chief of the Section on Bipolar Spectrum Disorders in the Emotion and Development Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute of Mental Health.

Dr. Leibenluft’s research involves the use of cognitive neuroscience techniques and neuroimaging modalities, including functional MRI, to uncover the brain mechanisms that underlie bipolar disorder and severe irritability in youth. She has demonstrated that children with bipolar disorder and those at familial risk for the disorder have deficits labeling emotional faces, and has begun to elucidate the relevant brain mechanisms. Dr. Leibenluft has also identified differences in clinical course and brain function between youth with bipolar disorder and those with severe, non-episodic irritability.

Dr. Leibenluft completed her B.A. from Yale University summa cum laude, her M.D. from Stanford University, and residency training at Georgetown University. Since 1989, she has been conducting research at the NIMH on bipolar disorder. She has authored approximately 180 publications and is a Deputy Editor of the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry; on the editorial boards of the American Journal of Psychiatry, Biological Psychiatry, Bipolar Disorders, Depression and Anxiety, and the Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology; and a member of the Advisory Board of the Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry.

Dr. Leibenluft is a member of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology and the American Psychiatric Association Work Group on Childhood Disorders for DSM-V. Her awards include the Distinguished Psychiatrist Award of the American Psychiatric Association; the American Psychiatric Association Blanche Ittelson Award for Research in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry; Special Service Awards from the NIH; NIMH and NIH Outstanding Mentor Awards; the Litchfield Lectureship at Oxford University; and the Michael Rutter lectureship of the Royal College of Psychiatrists.

Robert C. Malenka, M.D., Ph.D.

Robert MalenkaDr. Robert C. Malenka is the Pritzker Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences and Director of the Pritzker Laboratory at the Stanford University School of Medicine. He has been a world leader in the molecular mechanisms of how neurons communicate with one another and how this communication is modified during learning and by experience.  Dr. Malenka received his undergraduate education at Harvard from which he graduated in 1978, summa cum laude and Phi Beta Kappa in biology. He did all of his graduate work at the Stanford University School of Medicine from which he received an M.D. and a Ph.D. in neuroscience in 1983. Over the ensuing years he completed residency training in psychiatry at Stanford and 4 years of postdoctoral research work with Roger Nicoll at the University of California, San Francisco (U.C.S.F.). In 1989, he was appointed Assistant Professor of Psychiatry and Physiology at U.C.S.F. at which he reached the rank of Full Professor in 1996.  In addition to running an active research program at U.C.S.F., he was the Director of the Center for the Neurobiology of Addiction and Associate Director of the Center for Neurobiology and Psychiatry. He returned to the Stanford University School of Medicine in March, 1999 to become the Director of the Pritzker Laboratory in the Dept. of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science.  He is an elected member of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences (2004) and an elected fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (2005). His public service includes serving on the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse and as a Councilor for the Society for Neuroscience. He is also on the editorial boards of many prominent journals including Neuron, Trends in Neuroscience and the American Journal of Psychiatry.  Dr. Malenka’s research findings have been published in over 170 research papers in leading science journals. He has also co-authored a textbook entitled Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience (McGraw Hill, 2001).

Gin S. Malhi

Gin MalhiProfessor Gin S. Malhi is the Executive and Clinical director of the CADE Clinic based at Royal North Shore Hospital. He is Head of the Discipline of Psychiatry at the University of Sydney and is based at the Northern Clinical School. Gin is Head of the Department of Psychiatry at Royal North Shore Hospital and is a senior consultant psychiatrist in the Northern Sydney Central Coast Area Health Service.

Having obtained a degree in Pharmacology and a subsequent medical degree in the UK he completed his general psychiatry training in Cambridge and gained Membership of the United Kingdom Royal College of Psychiatrists in 1996. He then completed his specialist psychiatry training at the Bethlem and Maudsley Hospitals in London and as a Clinical Lecturer began mood disorders research at the Institute of Psychiatry (UK). Since moving to Australia in 1999 he has continued to conduct clinical research in depression and bipolar disorder and has been a Chief Investigator on a National Health Medical Research Council (NHMRC) Program Grant since 2003. During this time he has published more than 170 papers and has attracted research funding from the ARC and Rotary Foundation that he has used to investigate the neurobiology of Bipolar Disorder. In 2006 he was appointed the Editor-in-Chief of an international journal, Acta Neuropsychiatrica and he currently holds the post of Secretary in the Australasian Society of Bipolar Disorders (ASBD). In 2010 he was appointed the Editor of the Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry.

David J. Miklowitz, Ph.D.

David Miklowitz

 Dr. Miklowitz is Professor of Psychiatry in the Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry at the UCLA Semel Institute, and a Senior Clinical Research Fellow in the Department of Psychiatry at Oxford University.He completed his undergraduate work at Brandeis University and his doctoral (1979-1985) and postdoctoral (1985-1988) work at UCLA. His research focuses on family environmental factors and family psychoeducational treatments for adult-onset and childhood-onset bipolar disorder.

Dr. Miklowitz received the Joseph Gengerelli Dissertation Award from UCLA (1986), Young Investigator Awards from the International Congress on Schizophrenia Research (1987) and the National Alliance for Research on Schizophrenia and Depression (NARSAD; 1987), a Faculty Research Award (1998) and a Faculty Teaching Award (2008) from the University of Colorado, and a Distinguished Investigator Award from NARSAD (2001). He won the 2005 Mogens Schou Award for Research from the International Society for Bipolar Disorders and the Gerald L. Klerman Senior Investigator Award (2009) from the Depressive and Bipolar Support Alliance. He has received funding for his research from the National Institute of Mental Health, the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, the Robert Sutherland Foundation, and the Danny Alberts Foundation.

Dr. Miklowitz has published over 200 research articles and book chapters on bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, and six books. His articles have appeared in the Archives of General Psychiatry, the American Journal of Psychiatry, the British Journal of Psychiatry, the Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, Biological Psychiatry, the Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, and the Journal of Abnormal Psychology. His book with Michael Goldstein, Bipolar Disorder: A Family-Focused Treatment Approach (Guilford), won the 1998 Outstanding Research Publication Award from the American Association for Marital and Family Therapy. His book ?The Bipolar Disorder Survival Guide? is a best seller. His latest book, co-edited with Dante Cicchetti, is titled "Understanding Bipolar Disorder: A Developmental Psychopathology Perspective."

Andrew A. Nierenberg, M.D.

Andrew NierenbergDr. Nierenberg is a graduate of the Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, NewYork. He did his residency in psychiatry at New York University/Bellevue Hospital in New York City. He then went on to become a Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholar at Yale University, studying clinical epidemiology. He continued his trek north to join the faculty at Harvard, first to direct one of the Affective Disorders Inpatient Units and then to direct the Affective Disorders Outpatient Unit at McLean Hospital in Belmont MA. Dr. Nierenberg then joined the Psychiatry Department at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston where he is currently Associate Director of the Depression Clinical and Research Program and Medical Director of the Bipolar Programs, as well as Associate Professor of Psychiatry at Harvard Medical School.

Having published over 150 original articles, chapters, reviews, and abstracts, Dr. Nierenberg has been listed among the best doctors in North America for the treatment of mood and anxiety disorders since 1994. In 2000, he was awarded the NDMDA Gerald L. Klerman Young Investigator Award and a NARSAD Independent Investigator Award. Dr. Nierenberg is currently involved in both the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder (STEP-BD) and the Sequential Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) NIMH contracts, two unprecedented clinical trials that will include thousands of patients with mood disorders. He is also the Principal Invesitigator for a 3-site NIMH /NCCAM study of St.John’s Wort for Minor Depression. This has led to his appointment as a member of the Scientific Advisory Board for the Bernard Osher Center for Complementary and Integrative Medicine at Harvard Medical School.

His primary interests are treatment resistant depression, bipolar depression, juvenile bipolar disorder, and the longitudinal course of affective disorders. Dr. Nierenberg lectures extensively, both nationally and internationally, teaches, maintains an active clinical practice, conducts clinical trials funded by the National Institute of Mental Health and industry, is a member of the NIMH Initial Review Group for Intervention Research and peer reviews studies for multiple psychiatric journals.

Associate Director, Depression Clinical and Research Program, Massachusetts General Hospital
Medical Director, Bipolar Research Program, Massachusetts General Hospital
Associate Professor of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School

Mani N. Pavuluri, M.D., Ph.D.

Mani PavuluriMani Pavuluri is MD PhD, Professor at the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC), Berger-Colbeth Chair in Child Psychiatry, and the Founding Director of the Pediatric Brain Research And InterventioN (BRAIN) Center.

Dr. Pavuluri is trained as a Psychiatrist and Child Psychiatrist at Otago University Medical School in New Zealand, Royal Children’s Hospital at Melbourne University in Australia and the Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists. She additionally completed American training in Child Fellowship at Rush University, Chicago.

Dr. Pavuluri is a member of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology and has received many awards that include the prestigious Klingenstein Third Generation Award from AACAP for the best paper in mood disorders in 2009 and Gerry Klerman Award for outstanding research in 2010 from Brain and Behavior Research Foundation (NARSAD). She is the Founding Director of the now nationally recognized Pediatric Mood Disorders Clinic that grew into the Pediatric BRAIN Center at UIC. The program has drawn patients from 29 states to-date and has helped set up many programs across the world. She serves on the editorial Board of several top journals and published widely. She is funded by several granting agencies that include the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), NARSAD, Dana Foundation, Marshall Reynolds Foundation, American Foundation for Suicide Prevention (AFSP) and her grateful families (one of which is the endowed chair). She is listed under Top Psychiatrists in America, selected by patients, and Best Doctors of America, selected by peers since 2004.

Her goal is to understand brain mechanisms in order to develop molecular and brain biosignatures of pediatric mood disorders and unravel how treatments can reverse brain dysfunction, working towards personalized interventions. She is also working on suicide prevention and understanding the domain dysfunction at neurocognitive level, across child psychiatric illnesses. Dr. Pavuluri’s work is the foremost among the cohort of studies mapping the interfacing affective and cognitive brain circuits. Her book What Works for Bipolar Kids: Help and Hope for Parents draws on her 25+ years of experience treating children and adolescents with bipolar disorder.

Robert M. Post. M.D. 

Robert M. Post

Dr. Post graduated from Yale University in 1964, the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine in 1968, and interned at the Einstein School of Medicine in 1969. His Psychiatry residency was completed at the Massachusetts General Hospital, NIMH, and George Washington University. He was Chief, Biological Psychiatry Branch for many of his 36 years at the NIMH where his research focused on better understanding and treating patients with refractory unipolar and bipolar illness. His group has won major awards from the Society of Biological Psychiatry, APA, ACNP, Anna Monika Foundation, NARSAD, NDMDA, and in 2010 NAMI. 

He is on multiple editorial boards and has published more than 1,000 manuscripts.  He is the author of a recent book entitled: “Treatment of Bipolar Illness: A Casebook for Clinicians and Patients” published by Norton in 2008, and editor of the Bipolar Network News (BNN), a quarterly newsletter available online at www.bipolarnews.org.

Jan Scott MB, BS, M.D., FRCPsych

Jan ScottDr. Jan Scott is now Professor of Psychological Medicine at the University of Newcastle. She is a Distinguished Founding Fellow of the Academy of Cognitive Therapy (one of 8 individuals worldwide). Her research focuses on combined treatment strategies (using pharmacotherapy and Cognitive Therapy) in the treatment of individuals with bipolar disorders, chronic and/or severe depressions, and treatment resistant schizophrenia. More recently, she has begun to research the development of age appropriate services to meet the needs of adolescents and young adults with early onset bipolar disorders. Additional research focuses on mechanisms of action of psychological treatments, the prediction and management of medication non-adherence and studies of the short- and long-term prognosis of bipolar disorders.

Previous posts include a training scholarship with Professor Aaron T Beck in Philadelphia, USA; The Royal College of Psychiatrists Travelling Fellowship (allowing secondments to University of Wisconsin in Madison and to Johns Hopkin University in Baltimore). Professor Scott has also spent time working with Eugene Paykel in Cambridge, UK and Eduard Vieta and his team in Barcelona, Catalunya.

Mauricio Tohen M.D., DrPH, MBA

Mauricio TohenDr. Mauricio Tohen graduated as a doctor of medicine from the National University of Mexico and as a doctor of public health (epidemiology) from Harvard University. His postdoctoral training included a residency in psychiatry at the University of Toronto and a fellowship at McLean Hospital, Harvard Medical School. He also obtained an MBA degree from Indiana University Kelly School of Business. 
From 1988 to 1997, he was clinical director of the Bipolar and Psychotic Disorder Program at McLean Hospital. From 1997 to 2008 he worked at Lilly Research Laboratories attaining the highest possible scientific level of Distinguished Lilly Scholar. In 2009 he joined the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio as Head of the Division of Mood and Anxiety Disorders and the Aaron and Bobbie Eliott Krus Chair Endowed Professor in Psychiatry

He received a National Service Award in Psychiatric Epidemiology from NIMH and Harvard University. He also received a FIRST award from NIMH, the Pope Award from McLean Hospital, and a NARSAD Young Investigator Award. Dr. Tohen's research, supported by grants from NIMH and the pharmaceutical industry, has focused on the epidemiology, outcome, and treatment of bipolar disorder. 
In 2011 Dr. Tohen received the Simon Bolivar Award from the American Psychiatric Association. He has served on the Council on Research and the committee on Health Services Research of the American Psychiatric Association. He has also served in the Epidemiology & Genetics and the Clinical Centers and Special Projects Review committees at NIMH. Dr. Tohen has over 200 publications. He has co-edited four books, Psychiatric Epidemiology (1995, second edition 2003), Mood Disorders Across the Life Span (1996) ). Bipolar Disorder: The Upswing In Research and Treatment (2005) and Bipolar Psychopharmacotherapy (2006). He also edited the book Comorbidity in Affective Disorders (1999).

Giulio Tononi, M.D., Ph.D.

Giulio TononiGiulio Tononi received his medical degree and specialized in psychiatry at the University of Pisa, Italy. After serving as a medical officer in the Army, he obtained a Ph.D. in neuroscience as a fellow of the Scuola Superiore, based on his work on sleep regulation. From 1990 to 2000 he has been associated with The Neurosciences Institute, first in New York and then in San Diego. He is currently Professor of Psychiatry at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, where he is studying consciousness and its disorders as well as the mechanisms and functions of sleep.

In his work on consciousness, Dr. Tononi has addressed the problem of how the activities of functionally specialized areas of the brain can be integrated to give rise to a unified conscious experience. To this end, he has: (1) constructed large-scale computer models based on the anatomy and physiology of the thalamocortical system to study the mechanisms of information integration; (2) developed theoretical approaches aimed at defining and measuring the integration of information within the nervous system; (3) pioneered experimental approaches aimed at characterizing the neural substrate of conscious experience by using neuroimaging and, more recently, transcranial magnetic stimulation. This work has recently led to the formulation of the information integration theory of consciousness. His group is currently investigating some of the predictions of the theory, with particular emphasis on the breakdown of information integration in various stages of sleep and in brain disorders such as schizophrenia.

In his work on sleep, Dr. Tononi has pioneered the combined use of electrophysiological approaches and molecular biology. In collaboration with Dr. Chiara Cirelli, he has discovered striking differences in the expression of certain genes between sleep and waking and identified molecular markers of these behavioral states. Further studies have uncovered the neurophysiological and molecular mechanisms by which the acquisition of new information by the brain is limited to waking states and does not occur during sleep. Recently, Dr. Cirelli’s and Tononi’s laboratory has demonstrated, based on a variety of behavioral, pharmacological, and molecular criteria, that sleep-like states are present in the fruit fly Drosophila. This finding has opened the way to the genetic dissection of sleep using mutant screening and other powerful tools of genetic manipulation available in Drosophila. Current work using human, rat, and mouse models is aimed at understanding the functions of sleep by focusing on the consequences of sleep and sleep deprivation at the cellular and molecular level. Recently, he has formulated a new hypothesis about the function of sleep, according to which sleep serves synaptic homeostasis. This hypothesis has led to several experimental tests, including the recent demonstration that sleep can be induced on a local basis by learning and plasticity. The synaptic homeostasis hypothesis has implications with respect to the neurobiology of mood disorders and the beneficial but transitory effects of sleep deprivation on depression.

Eduard Vieta, M.D., Ph.D.

Eduard VietaEduard Vieta, MD, PhD, is Professor of Psychiatry and Director of the Bipolar Disorders Program of the Hospital Clinic at the University of Barcelona in Spain, where he also serves as Director of Research at the Clinical Institute of Neuroscience.

Professor Vieta’s research focuses on the neurobiology and treatment of bipolar disorder. His program has been at the forefront of research in the area of novel treatments, both pharmacological and psychological, including atypical antipsychotics, antiepileptic drugs, novel compounds and psychoeducation.

Since 2001, his research program has been funded by the Stanley Medical Research Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, USA, and he currently leads the Bipolar Research Program at the Spanish Research Network on Mental Disorders. He has made significant contributions to many of the published bipolar disorder treatment guidelines and has authored more than 200 original articles, 40 book chapters and 20 books on bipolar disorder. He sits on the editorial board of 18 international scientific journals and reviews articles for more than 20 others.

Among several international awards, he received the Aristotle award in 2005 and the Mogens Shou award for bipolar disorder research in 2007, considered the highest honour in the area of bipolar disorder research. 

Lakshmi N Yatham MBBS, FRCPC, MRCPsych (UK), MBA (Exec)

Dr. L. YDr. Lakshmi Yatham is currently a Professor of Psychiatry at the University of British Columbia and the Regional Head for the Department of Psychiatry at Vancouver Coastal Health and Providence Healthcare. Dr. Yatham’s major areas of research focus include first episode mania, neurobiology and treatment of bipolar disorder as well as high risk population for bipolar disorder.

Dr. Yatham has received a number of awards including the Senior Scholar Award from Michael Smith Foundation, the prestigious Mogens Schou Award for international education and advocacy on bipolar disorder from the International Society for Bipolar Disorders, the Canadian College of Neuropsychopharmacology Medal for contributions to psychopharmacology and John M Cleghorn Award for excellence in research and leadership from the Canadian Psychiatric Association.

Dr. Yatham served as the Vice President and later as the President of the International Society for Bipolar Disorders and in these roles implemented establishment of bipolar networks, chapters, trainee awards and task forces. He was the founding chair of the Canadian Network for Bipolar Disorders and also the chair of the bipolar group of the Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT). As a bipolar group chair, he led the development of CANMAT treatment guidelines for bipolar disorder which are updated every 3 years in collaboration with the International Society for Bipolar Disorders and published in Bipolar Disorders journal. These guidelines are highly cited with the 2009 version receiving over 450 citations, and the most recent update published in 2013 already received over 50 citations. Dr. Yatham is currently the Secretary for the World Federation of Societies for Biological Psychiatry and is actively involved in establishing new task forces with specific objectives and deliverables in order to move the field of biological psychiatry forward.

Dr. Yatham’s research activities have been supported by national and international peer reviewed funding agencies. He received the inaugural Michael Smith Foundation Senior Scholar Award as well as NARSAD Young and Independent investigator awards and his research program has consistently been supported by the peer reviewed funding from the CIHR since 1996. His research work has resulted in over 220 peer-reviewed publications including papers in high impact journals. Further, he has written several book chapters, edited books including a large international multi-authored book titled “Bipolar Disorder: Clinical and Neurobiological Foundations” and presented his research at numerous international conferences. He is a member of the editorial boards of several international journals and The Editor-at Large for the International journal Bipolar Disorders. Dr. Yatham is regularly invited to speak on all aspects of bipolar disorders at international meetings such as Collegium Internationale Neuro-psychopharmacologicum, European College of Neuropsychopharmacology and International Conference on Bipolar Disorders.

Trevor Young M.D., Ph.D.

Trevor Young Dr. Trevor Young is Professor and Head, UBC Department of Psychiatry, and Vice President, Mental Health, Regional Vancouver Health Authorities. As an active clinician scientist in the area of bipolar disorder, his principal research interest is the molecular basis of bipolar disorder and its treatment and how to apply these findings to the clinical setting. He has been particularly interested in understanding the processes which lead to long-term changes in brain structure and function in patients with bipolar disorder which may be targeted by neuroprotective effects of mood stabilizing drugs. Dr. Trevor Young has received the Douglas Utting Award for outstanding contributions in mood disorders and the Canadian College of Neuropsychopharmacology Heinz Lehmann Award for outstanding contributions in neuropsychopharmacology research; he is also a Distinguished Fellow of the American Psychiatric Association.

Eric Youngstrom, Ph.D.

Eric YoungstromEric Youngstrom, Ph.D., is a professor of Psychology and Psychiatry at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, where he is also the Acting Director of the Center for Excellence in Research and Treatment of Bipolar Disorder. He is the first recipient of the Early Career Award from the Division of Child and Adolescent Clinical Psychology, and is an elected full member of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. He has consulted on the 5th Revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5) and the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). He chairs the Work Group on Child Diagnosis for the International Society for Bipolar Disorders.

He has served as the Director of the Data Management and Statistical Analysis Unit and Research Methods Core of the Center for Research in Bipolar Disorder across the Life Cycle.He earned his doctorate in clinical psychology at the University of Delaware, and he completed his predoctoral internship training at Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic before joining the faculty at Case Western Reserve University.

Dr. Youngstrom is a licensed psychologist who specializes in the relationship of emotions and psychopathology, and the clinical assessment of children and families. He teaches courses on assessment and therapy, developmental psychopathology, research design, and multivariate statistics, and has earned the Tanner, Carl F. Wittke, Glennan Fellowship, and the Northeastern Ohio Teaching Awards.

He actively investigates ways of improving the use of clinical assessment instruments for making better differential diagnoses, predictions about future functioning, or monitoring of treatment progress – particularly with regard to bipolar disorder across the lifespan. Dr. Youngstrom has spoken on the topic of pediatric bipolar disorder at scientific meetings in Canada, Europe, South America, and Asia, as well as around the United States. Dr. Youngstrom has published more than 225 peer reviewed publications on the topics of clinical assessment and emotion, and he has served as an ad hoc reviewer on more than sixty prominent psychology and psychiatry journals as well as being on the editorial boards of Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, the Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, the Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, and Psychological Assessment.

He is currently on the Education Committee and the Research Committee of the International Society for Bipolar Disorders. Dr. Youngstrom was the principal investigator on a five year grant from the National Institute of Mental Health (R01 MH066647) and co-investigator of a second, multi-site R01, both designed to improve the assessment of bipolar disorder in diverse community samples. He has received grants from the NIMH, the Ohio Department of Mental Health, Cuyahoga County, and the Schubert Center for Child Development.

Carlos A. Zarate, M.D. 

Carlos A. ZarateDr. Zarate is Chief Experimental Therapeutics & Pathophysiology Branch and of the Section on Neurobiology and Treatment of Mood and Anxiety Disorders, Division Intramural Research Program, National Institute of Mental Health. Dr. Zarate completed his residency training in psychiatry at the Massachusetts Mental Health Center/Brockton VAMC division. He later completed a fellowship in Clinical Psychopharmacology at McLean Hospital of the Consolidated Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School and remained on staff at McLean Hospital as the Director of the Bipolar and Psychotic Disorders Outpatient Services and Director of the New and Experimental Clinic. From 1998 to 2000 Dr. Zarate was the Chief of the Bipolar and Psychotic Disorders Program at the University of Massachusetts Medical School. In 2001, he joined the Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program at NIMH.

His achievements and awards include the Ethel-DuPont Warren Award and Livingston Awards, Consolidated Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School; Outstanding Psychiatrist Research Award, Massachusetts Psychiatric Association; Program for Minority Research Training in Psychiatry, APA; the National Alliance for Research on Schizophrenia and Depression Young Investigator Award; National Alliance for Research on Schizophrenia and Depression Independent Investigator Award; and the National Institutes of Health Director’s Award Scientific/Medical. Dr. Zarate has been elected to membership to the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology, to the Board of Councilors for the International Society for Bipolar Disorders. He is also a member of the Society of Biological Psychiatry and the Society for Neuroscience. Dr. Zarate’s research focuses on the pathophysiology and development of novel therapeutics for treatment-resistant mood disorders as well as the study of biosignatures of treatment response.